For molecular size, studies have inversely-correlated the permeability of small solutes with molecular volume [ 38 ] or cross- sectional area [ ]. Energy expenditure is required. It should be noted that reporter gene expression inherently amplifies the signal through multiple rounds of transcription and translation [ 29 ]. Thus, in plasma pH 7. Curiously, 3E10, an autoantibody proposed to bind to dsDNA [ ], has been proposed to penetrate into the nucleus and impair DNA repair [ ], or translocate an exogenous phosphatase across the cell membrane [ ]. The ABC transporters alternate between the inward- and the outward-facing conformation; the cyclical transition between them is powered by ATP hydrolysis.
Note that our equations make no assumptions regarding the mechanism of the elimination—it might be filtration, secretion, even metabolic transformation in the liver, or some combination of the above.
The gold standard for cell penetration
Sandvig K, van Deurs B. Fluorescence microscopy-based methods or biological assays measuring the activity of the payload in the cytoplasm are also employed. Macrocyclic drugs—those with a ring architecture of 12 or more atoms, including cyclic peptides—tend to be larger and more polar than most small-molecule drugs, falling outside the Rule of 5 . The steepest such gradient exists at the surface of the gastric mucous membrane. Absorption after IM or sc injection may be delayed or erratic for salts of poorly soluble bases and acids eg, parenteral form of phenytoin and in patients with poor peripheral perfusion eg, during hypotension or shock.